Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute a major global health challenge, hampering nations’ economic growth and sustainable development. The four major groups of NCDs - cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes - account for over 80% of all NCD related deaths and share the same four major risk factors: tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity. Recently, mental health and environmental determinants were also added to the NCD agenda. This new collection issue brings together a wide and diverse author group, to focus on key issues and suggest scalable solutions to accelerate the implementation of the high level commitments made in the three UN general assembly meetings. As this collection expands over time, it looks to cover the major issues in prevention and control of NCDs, and to provide a holistic perspective on the current challenges and scope of future action to tackle NCDs and improve health worldwide.